Empowerment and Job Satisfaction in Nursing Educators

Empowerment and Job Satisfaction in Nursing Educators

Research Design

This research will use a descriptive co-relational study design and involve the following variables: Structural Empowerment and Job Satisfaction in nursing educators. This is a non-experimental descriptive co-relational research that does not manipulate or control the independent variable which is the nursing educators. The researchers, based on the descriptive design, will summarize the phenomena observed within the natural environment without manipulation and also establish a correlation to determine the relationship between structural empowerment and job satisfaction. This quantitative research is undertaken to investigate structural empowerment and level of job satisfaction and its sub variables to determine: concepts (measurable reflections) and constructs (concept that is “man-made” and deliberately used by the researchers for a specific purpose) that affect the nursing educator. The assumed direction is that structural empowerment (independent variable) influences the level of job satisfactions of nursing educators (dependent variable). The researchers decided that descriptive co-relational type of study design was best used to illustrate, understand and establish if there is a significant relationship between the two constructs. This design is dissimilar to the other descriptive research designs that focus on ideas not specific to the needs of the researchers, for example a comparative design compares and contrasts two or more groups which is inappropriate for a study solely based on nursing educators. A longitudinal design, studies samples over a period of time to show trends and growth changes across a span of time, which the researchers did not deem necessary at this point in time for the study ( possibly for future researchers that replicate this study) . A retrospective and prospective design was ill fitted for the researchers’ specific purpose, which was to establish the current level of job satisfaction of nursing educators based on their perceived structural empowerment.


Respondents of the Study

This study will exclusively utilize nursing educators in the Philippines specifically nursing educators employed in the Metro Manila Area and more precisely the schools in the University Belt. The inclusion criteria dictate that the respondents of the study are current employed educators in accredited nursing schools offering a Bachelor’s Degree in Nursing. Explicitly, the educators will be employed within the schools encompassing the University Belt in Manila and hold a minimum of a masterly degree. For this study, the respondents must be a full-time member of the faculty and be employed greater than six months in the department. The educator must teach a minimum of one major nursing course and or is a clinical instructor for greater than one semester of a school year. The exclusion criteria dictate that an adjunct educator or a professor teaching in another accredited school or institution other than the one surveyed in will be excluded for this study.

Sampling Technique

The sample for this study is selected to be optimistically representative of the entire nursing educator population in the Metro Manila Area. A probability sampling will be done in order to randomize selection of respondents. This method is optimal to obtain a representative sample because the respondents are not subject to the researchers biases. A cluster sampling will be administered to determine the individuals included in the study selected through a simple stratified random sampling. The researcher will select a random sample from a larger general population (all accredited nursing schools within the University Belt) and from that batch a selected quota will be determined to identify the strata of the population (how many nursing educators are in the schools selected) this number will then be proportioned as a whole to determine the total and again the individuals randomly selected. The random sampling will become successively smaller units until the desired proportionate random sampling will be made. The sample size will be determined by the target population and the Slovin formula.

Research Setting

The research study will be conducted in the de facto sub district in Manila, unofficially named the University Belt or U-belt where in, there is a greater concentration of colleges and universities in a four mile (six kilometer) area. The university belt is described as an irregular cresent with a tail encompassed by the following areas of Sampaloc, Quiapo, Santa Cruz, Santa Mesa, and San Miguel. The following colleges and universities that offer a bachelors in nursing degree are clustered in this area and will be included in this study: *the cluster sampling will determine the actual colleges included in the paper*

Arellano University

The College of Nursing Arellano University 2600 Legarda Street, Sampaloc, Manila, Philippines

In 1954, Arellano University opened a school of nursing which offered a basic nursing course. In April 1960, the School of Nursing expanded its curricular offerings by adding courses in post-basic nursing with majors in public health and clinical teaching. The School of Nursing was later renamed College of Nursing. At about the same time, a preparatory medical course was added to the general curriculum of the College of Arts and Sciences. The Arellano University School of Nursing grew out of the Graduate Nurse Program which was organized in 1960. The course leading to the B.S.N. Degree was started in 1965. Its first group of graduates took the Board Examination for Nurses in June, 1970.The college offers the following courses: Bachelor of Science in Nursing with option to complete and earn degree from Edith Cowan University, Perth, Western Australia and an International Nursing Program of a Bachelor of Science in Nursing To be completed at either Alderson-Broaddus College, Philippi, West Virginia, USA or Edith Cowan University, Perth, Western Australia. http://www.arellano.edu.ph/colleges/nursing

Data Gathering Instrument

The two major variables in the study will be measured by the following questionnaires: Conditions for Work Effectiveness – II (CWEQ-II) for structural empowerment and Mueller and McCloskey Satisfaction Scale. Permission to use these tools were granted (see Appendix) — still waiting on email and reply from the authors*

The study will utilize the Conditions for Work Effectiveness – II (CWEQ-II) for structural empowerment developed by Dr. Heather K. Spence Laschinger which is based on Kanter’s theory of structural empowerment. The Questionnaire measures four empowerment dimensions: 1. perceived access to opportunity 2. Support 3. Information and 4. Resources in the work environment. The questionnaire takes about 10-30 minutes to accomplish. The instrument has been used frequently in research and especially nursing since the 2000’s and has consistently shown reliability and validity. (Source)

*Keep this here I haven’t seen the questionnaire anyway since the author hasn’t emailed me but this is a good reference just in case it’s from a website I’m not sure if its reliable so hold off on this part* The tool consists of 19 items (39 questions) that measure Kanter’s 6 components of structural empowerment described by opportunity, information, support, resources, formal power, and informal power and a 2-item global empowerment scale which is used for construct validation purposes. Items on each of the six subscales are summed and averaged to provide a score for each subscale ranging from 1-5.These scores of the 6 subscales are then summed to create the total empowerment score (score range: 6-30).Higher scores represent higher perceptions of empowerment.

The McCloskey Mueller Satisfaction Scale was developed by Charles W. Mueller and Joanne Comi McCloskey. In the article published in the Academy of Management Journal 1990, the MMSS is said to be a reliable and valid measurement for job satisfaction in nurses. The McCloskey Mueller instrument being designed for health care settings, dominated the other instruments in terms of the combination of psychometric properties and ease of use. The MMSS is a 31 item questionnaire with the sub scales of: Extrinsic rewards, scheduling satisfaction, family/work balance, co-workers, interaction, professional opportunities, praise/recognition, and control and responsibility global scale. A 5 point Likert response category was used for each various item (5) very satisfied, (4) moderately satisfied, (3) neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, (2) moderately satisfied, (1) very dissatisfied.


Mueller, C., & McCloskey, J. 1990. Nurses’ job satisfaction: a proposed measure s and efficiency.AcademyofManagementJournal, 36(6):1345-1347.

Validation of Research Instrument

The Conditions for Work Effectiveness – II (CWEQ-II) for structural empowerment and Mueller and McCloskey Satisfaction Scale questionnaires will be pre- tested to a select number of respondents similar to the determined sample size, this will ensure internal validation of the instruments and determine if the tools adequately assess what is needed by the researchers and that the respondents have no difficulty in answering the questionnaires. These test respondents will not be added to the study’s sample size. Since these instruments were not made and administered in the Philippines the researchers deliberated on the need for interpreting the questionnaires but deemed that the original documents need not be altered because of the educational attainment and profession of the respondents. Any irregularities or issues with the questionnaires will be considered and further changes will be made if discrepancies arise during the administration and interpretation.

Data Gathering Process

The data gathering process begins and is determined by the acquiescence of the Dean of Nursing of each college and university selected in the research to allow their faculty to participate in the study. If the proper permissions have been granted, the time period for administration of the questionnaires will be the school year 2014-2015 in the months of June to August. The total respondents for each college and university will be determined and in line with ethical and privacy concerns, will be informed about the confidentiality of the results and if deemed necessary the results will be forwarded at the Deans request. As individual respondent permission is granted the respondent will be given the questionnaires to be fulfilled and collected by the appointed liaison within the institution to be forwarded to the researchers. The data will be collated from the colleges and universities selected and tallied based on the scoring scales for each questionnaire.



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