Postoperative Epidural Analgesia

Postoperative pain is a form of acute pain as it occurs due to injury such as surgical incision (Macintyre, NHMRC & ANZCA, 2010). Acute pain is one of the activators of the systematic stress response in the body, which includes complex neurohumoral and immune responses (Macintyre, NHMRC & ANZCA, 2010). The systematic stress response is activated when the nociceptors (C and A-delta fibers of primary afferent neurons that are in the periphery and viscera) detect a tissue-damaging stimulus (Hall & Guyton, 2011). Upon activation, chemicals such as hydrogen ions, substance P, adenosine triphosphate, serotonin, histamine, bradykinin, interleukins, and prostaglandins are released systematically and into the damaged tissues (Hall & Guyton, 2011).

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