Most healthcare systems aim to help keep individuals healthy and treat those who are sick, without adversely affecting the financial situation of the affected families (Blais, Hayes, Kozier, Erb, 2015). Due to the frequent changes and even possible future changes, people are often confused about the healthcare systems. Most of them are uninformed and don’t know what to believe or what not to believe. A majority want to pay a low price and get quality medical care. This paper will discuss the four models of health care, and how each relates to the American health care system.

The Beveridge model was named after William Beveridge, a social reformer who came up with the national health service of Britain. The model is designed such that the health care is financed by the government, through the money collected from taxes. In this model the citizens are not supposed to get any doctors bill (Giger, 2016). The government owns a lot of hospitals, but not all of them, most of the doctors are also government employees. Those that are not employed by the government and work in the private sector are required to collect their bill from the government. It mainly focuses on social insurance that ensures everyone has a right to receive health care services regardless of their financial situation. The use of this model ensures that the cost per capita is very low. The rationale is that the government is in control of the duties of the doctors and also the cost of healthcare. Countries that use this model include Great Britain, Denmark, Cuba, and Spain (Burwell, 2015). Except Cuba all the other countries using this model do not aim at making profit, because they feel that this will compromise the efficiency and equity of the services. On average the countries using this model spend a lower percentage of their GDP on health care than the other countries. Unlike their American counterparts doctors in this model are almost never sued for malpractice and they are also lowly paid (Giger, 2016).

The Bismarck model is named after Otto Von Bismarck, a Prussian chancellor. The model is financed by both the employee and the employer through salary deductions. The Bismarck model works almost the same way the US insurance industry although it covers everybody and does not make any profit. In this model hospitals and doctors are mostly private they however cannot overcharge because of the regulations that have been put in place (Drummond, Sculpher, 2015). This model is more costly compared to the Beveridge model, it however provides more freedom. Countries that have adopted this model include Belgium, Germany, Japan, Netherlands and France (Burwell, 2015).

The national health insurance model borrows elements from both the Bismarck and the Beveridge model. Private hospitals and doctors provide services to the people and the government pays them, through insurance programs that every citizen contributes to. Compared to the US system of profit-making insurance this model is cheaper and easier in terms of administration. The government being the only player in the market negotiates for lower prices (Morton, Fontaine, Hudak, Gallo, 2017). However, in this model the government can also decide which medical procedures they will cover and which ones they will not. Patients can also wait for a long period of time before getting treatment. The model is mostly used in Canada but some countries like South Korea and Taiwan are also adopting it (Burwell, 2015).

The out-of-pocket model is a model used by very many countries of the world, most of which are very poor. In terms of the medical cost, everything is up to the individual. The hospitals and the doctors are privatized and they are allowed to charge whatever they feel like. If the citizens need to get medical care they have to pay for it on the spot. This therefore means that the well-off are able to get medical services quickly while the poor have to go without any medical care (Pronovost, Armstrong, 2015). The counties that use this model have a very low average of life expectancy. According to a report, Myanmar, India and Nigeria have the highest percentage of individuals who pay out-of-pocket, with an average of around 80% of the total population. This percentage is very high compared to the US where only 14% of the population pay for medical services using the pay out-of-pocket system.

The US healthcare model is very different from the other countries of the world because it has separate systems for the different classes of people (Blais, Hayes, Kozier, Erb, 2015). The national health care system of the US has elements of all the four models. There are different types of insurance covers in the US, and each state has their own health insurance and regulations. Patients are expected to pay monthly insurance fees to enable them see a doctor when they need to. The affordable care act passed into law by the Obama administration, in 2010 has helped insured 11 million more Americans, some of which did not want insurance, some who could not afford it, and some who were rejected due to pre-existing conditions.

In order for an individual to navigate the complex the United States Healthcare system, there is a need for healthcare literacy skills. In most cases, members of the public who have little knowledge of the healthcare systems that exist in the U.S. and as a result, they end up having a hard time understanding this system. These skills are essential in decision making and especially in a country where there are various types of healthcare systems. The skills help a leader analyze the information he/she is provided with in order to establish authenticity. From there, he/she is able to calculate the risks involved as well as the benefits.

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